5 main points:
- The root structure has a branching pattern, which increases the surface area for the absorption of water.
- If you zoom in there are hairs on the end which is called root hair, which are epidermal cells (cells that are surface)
- Root hair has an extension of the cell wall which increases the surface area to absorb water
- Active transport against the concentration gradient takes in the mineral into the root.
- In which roots get water by osmosis (water moves from dilute to concentrated), the dilute region (soil water surrounding the root) moves into the root (concentrated, building up the minerals in the cell). Water then moves across the cortex to the xylem by osmosis.